Hepatitis B Vaccination
Hepatitis B vaccination is not routinely given on the NHS. Patients should seek advice from their employer, if they are requesting them to have the vaccination. Students requesting Hepatitis B immunisation for occupational purposes are advised to contact the Occupational Health Department at the University, where provision for any immunisation will be made.
GPs do not provide an occupational health service as part of their NHS responsibility.
A vaccination to protect against tetanus is given as part of the NHS childhood vaccination programme.
The full course of the tetanus vaccination consists of five doses. The first three doses are given during early childhood. This is followed by two booster doses. The first booster dose is given at around four years of age. The second one is given 10 years later. After the full course, you should have lifelong immunity against tetanus. However, if you or your child has a deep wound, it is best to get medical advice.
If you are not sure whether you have had the full course, for example because you were born in another country, contact your GP for advice.
Flu (also known as influenza) is a highly infectious illness caused by the flu virus. It spreads rapidly through small droplets coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person.
Studies have shown that flu vaccines provide effective protection against the flu, although protection may not be complete and may vary between people. Protection from the vaccine gradually decreases and flu strains change over time. Therefore, new vaccines are made each year and people at risk of flu are encouraged to be vaccinated every year.
The flu vaccination is offered to people in at-risk groups. These people are at greater risk of developing serious complications if they catch flu, such as pregnant women and elderly people.
This is also known as the pneumo jab, and provides protection against pneumococcal infections.
Pneumococcal infections are caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is sometimes referred to as the pneumococcus bacterium. There are many different strains (types) of the bacterium that can cause a number of conditions, including:
- pneumonia – inflammation (infection) of the lungs
- septicaemia – a form of blood poisoning from an infection in the blood
- meningitis – an infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
Who is affected?
A pneumococcal infection can affect anyone. However, some groups of people have a higher risk of the infection developing into a serious health condition. These include:
- children under two years of age
- adults aged 65 or over
- children and adults with certain chronic (long-term) health conditions, such as a serious heart or kidney condition
Types of pneumococcal vaccine
There are two different types of pneumococcal vaccine:
- pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): this is given to all children under two years of age as part of the childhood vaccination programme
- pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV): this is given to people who are 65 years of age or over, and to people at high risk
The HPV Vaccine for girls and boys aged 12 &13
The HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine is designed to protect against the two types of HPV than can cause 70% of cervical cancer cases. It does not protect you against all other types, so you will still need to start going for regular cervical screening when you are 25 years of age.
It is important that you get this protection early enough for it to be effective and the best time for that is in your early teenage years. The vaccine won’t protect you against other sexually transmitted infection. You will need three injections over a period of six months to get the best protection. You will be informed when your immunisation is due. The nurse will give you the injection in your upper arm